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Secondary Education 4800S:
Social Studies Methods

Randy L. Hoover, Instructor
2210 Beeghly College of Education

Ohio Social Studies Academic Content Standards. 2003
The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities. E. Wayne Ross, Editor. 1997
Teaching Methods for Empowerment: The Pedagogical Imperative* (Draft Copy). Randy L. Hoover, 1999.
Democratic Discipline: Foundation and Practice*. Hoover & Kindsvatter, 1997.
Lies My Teacher Told Me. James W. Lowen, 1995
    *Note: My share of any royalties earned from the use of my texts in this class will be donated to Beeghly College of Education through the YSU development fund.
Class Materials and Hyperlink Resources are only available from the 4800S Internet pages within Prof. Hoover's on-line site: http://cc.ysu.edu/~rlhoover/ClassConnections
Course Purpose: To develop the candidate's ability to plan, execute and evaluate social studies lessons that are empowering, interesting, and reflective. Specifically, the course is intended to enable the candidate to determine and select concepts, principles, and ideas from the various social studies fields that are powerful and usable; plan lessons and units for the teaching of those subjects that compel the interest of the learner; plan lessons and units for the teaching of those subjects that engage the candidate in using the concepts, principles, and ideas associatively, interpretively, and applicatively; and to design authentic assessment that demand the learners demonstrate that they know how, where, and when to use the knowledge studied.
Course Overview: The course will address the methodologies of empowering teaching practice in terms of how to select and value what is taught, how to teach it in a manner that is empowering and interesting for the learner, and how to assess the degree to which the learners can think with and apply the knowledge you have taught. Further, this course is intended to engage you clinical experiences that will enhance your ability to reflect critically on what you teach and how you teach it by giving particular emphasis to the nature of your candidates, the purpose of schooling, and outcomes based instruction and evaluation.
Major topics to be covered:
(Note: Parenthetical items refer to the Modes of Reflective Practice which will be explicitly dealt with in class.)

  1. Knowledge Identification
    (Conceptual Framework R4, 6)
  2. Ideology & Hegemony as Content and Process
    (Conceptual Framework R4, 6,)
  3. Race, class, gender, ethnicity, disability, life style
    (Conceptual Framework R2, 4)
  4. Traditional versus empowering pedagogies
    (Conceptual Framework R2, 4, 6)
  5. The selection and use of instructional technologies
    (Conceptual Framework R 1, 4, 8)
  6. Critically reflective teaching and learning
    (Conceptual Framework R1-8)
  7. Understanding purpose in planning
    (Conceptual Framework R 1-8)
  8. Relations between interest and effort in learning
    (Conceptual Framework R1, 2, 3,)
  9. Instructional objectives
    (Conceptual Framework R1, 8)
  10. Progressive and critical constructivist pedagogies
    (Conceptual Framework R1-8)
  11. Teaching technique, method, and activities
    (Conceptual Framework R1, 2, 3, 5)
  12. Evaluation/Assessment of teaching and learning
    (Conceptual Framework R1, 2, 4, 7)
  13. The effects of race, class, gender, ethnicity and disability
    (Conceptual Framework R6, 7)
  14. Performance-based instruction and assessment
    (Conceptual Framework R1-8)
  15. Distinctions between traditional teaching practices and critically reflective practices
    (Conceptual Framework R2, 8)
  16. Distinctions between education and training
    (Conceptual Framework R1, 3, 6)
  17. Modes of Reflective Practice
    (Conceptual Framework R1-8)
  18. Reflective Thinking
    (Conceptual Framework R1-8)
  19. Reflective Practice
    (Conceptual Framework R1-8)
Assessment & Grading:
  • 15% Expository Activities: This includes oral participation in all expository activities
    (e.g., peer teaching as a peer teacher and learner participant and as a member of the post-teaching reflective session), group peer editing and critique sessions, formal class discussions, and oral peer analysis expositions. In other words, regular attendance and significant oral involvement is requisite to doing well in this area of your assessment.
  • 15% Instructional Technology Plan: Each candidate will submit an overview plan containing a variety of technology uses for specific instructional purposes. The assignment can be found on the class materials download page.
  • 20% Peer Teaching Lesson: Each candidate will be required to do a 20 minute peer teaching lesson demonstrating the use of the concepts, principles, and ideas taught in the course. This experience will be graded by the instructor and is requisite to passing the course. The cover sheet containing the rubric is online at the class materials download site.
        Note: Participation in peer teaching as both a peer teacher and as a learner is requisite to passing the course. Unexcused absence during any peer teach may be considered as a course failure.
  • 50% Two-week unit plan: It will cover a topic of your choice within your certification area and will be graded as to both content and process (pedagogical methods). The plan is to be typed and organized according to the outline presented in the course. The plan must articulate the NCSS Curriculum Standards as appropriate to the goals of the unit plan. The NCSS standards may be found at http://www.ncss.org/online/standards/ and individually at the 4800S class WWW site. The details of this assignment will be covered in class and in the course materials. This is a mastery learning assignment.
         Note: The outline for this unit plan is located within Chapter 6 of The Pedagogical Imperative and online at the class materials download site.
  • Instructional Objectives:
        Knowledge and Skills:
          The candidates will:
    1. Understand, critique, and apply the differences between traditional teaching methods and methods of empowerment and reflectivity.
      (Conceptual Framework R 2, 4, 5, 6, 7; INTASC 2, 4, 5, 7.)
    2. Understand and apply the principles of motive state and interest in the role of developing candidate activities.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 2, 5, 8; INTASC 2, 3, 5)
    3. Use the concept of the ratio of interest to effort in discriminating between traditional and empowering teaching activities to produce and teach empowering lessons.
      (Conceptual Framework R1-8; INTASC 2, 3, 5)
    4. Use the concept of the ratio of interest to effort in the development of a 10 day unit plan.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 4, 8; INTASC 2, 3, 5)
    5. Define and use the fundamental principles of knowing where being able to use knowledge is seen as association, interpretation, and application of concepts, principles, and ideas.
      (Conceptual Framework R1-8; INTASC 1, 4, 5, 7.)
    6. Understand and apply principles inherent in focal situations to the development of candidate activities.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 3, 8; INTASC 2, 4, 5)
    7. Use the principle of instrumentalism as epistemological basis for the resolution or solution of focal situations.
      (Conceptual Framework R 2, 3, 4; INTASC 2, 4, 5)
    8. Develop instructional objectives that explicitly state the conceptual knowledge that is to be use to be used by the candidate in the instructional activity.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 4, 6; INTASC 2, 3, 5)
    9. Develop instructional activities that articulate the knowledge of the instructional objective.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 4, 5; INTASC 2, 3, 5)
    10. Understand the significant differences between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of candidate performance.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 2, 4, 6; INTASC 1, 3, 8)
    11. Understand functional differences in validity maintenance between traditional forms of quantitative evaluation and performance based evaluation.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 2; INTASC 8)
    12. Develop and operationalize performance based evaluation that maintains construct validity of the instructional objective.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1, 2, 4, 8; INTASC 8)
    13. Identify and isolate efficacious concepts, principles, and ideas from the subject matter and incorporate them in the development of a unit plan.
      (Conceptual Framework R 2, 3, 4, 6; INTASC 1, 4)
    14. Thoughtfully select and demonstrate the fundamental principles of reflective teaching in 30 minute peer teaching exercise.
      (Conceptual Framework R1-8; INTASC 2, 4, 5, 7.)
    15. Selection of subject-matter to be taught in terms of its importance and value to the learners.
      (Conceptual Framework R 2, 3, 4, 6; INTASC 1, 2, 3, 5)
    16. Selection of teaching methods appropriate to the subject matter being taught.
      (Conceptual Framework R 2, 3, 4, 6; INTASC 2, 4)
    17. Thoughtfully select and demonstrate the fundamental principles of reflective teaching in a 10 day unit plan.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1-8; INTASC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8)
    18. Demonstrate use of technology in instruction and in professional domain.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1; INTASC 8)

            The candidate will:

    19. Value the vision of democratic ideals in class discussion, interaction with peers, and the organization and presentation of learning activities.
      (Conceptual Framework R 6, 7; INTASC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8)
    20. Value the modes of reflective practice through the unit plan and peer teaching.
      (Conceptual Framework R 1-8; INTASC 4)
    21. Value ethics, diversity, and democratic ideals through the use of appropriate terms and language throughout ever aspect of class written and oral.
      (Conceptual Framework 5, 6, 7; INTASC 3, 7)
    22. Value authentic assessment and assessment validity in the construction of candidate assessment mechanisms in the unit plan.
      (Conceptual Framework 1, 4, 8; INTASC 8 )
    23. Value the inclusion of all candidates regardless of lived experience.
      (Conceptual Framework R 6, 7; INTASC 3, 5)
    24. Value the role of professional culture through the interaction with peers in both informal and formal peer class activities.
      (Conceptual Framework R 5; INTASC 9)
    Reference List
    Bargar, R. R., and Hoover, R. L. (1984). "Psychological type and the matching of cognitive styles." In C. M. Galloway, M. C. Seltzer, & J. E. Kerber (Eds.), Matching teaching and learning styles. Columbus: The Ohio State University.
    Britzman, D. P. (1991). Practice makes practice: A critical study of learning to teach. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Chall, J. S., and Mirsky, A. F. (Eds.). (1978). Education and the brain: The seventy-seventh yearbook of the national society for the study of education, Part II. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Cohen, E. (1999 ). Designing Group Work. NY: Teachers College Press.
    Dewey, J.(1938). Experience and education. New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Dewey, J.(1933). How we think. Lexington. MA: D. C. Heath and Company.
    Dewey, J. (1975). Interest and EffortCarbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Univ P.
    Halpern, Diane F. (1984). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Hoover, R. (Draft Manuscript). Secondary School Teaching Methods for Empowerment: The Pedagogical Imperative.
    Hoover, R., and Kindsvatter, R. (1997). Democratic Discipline: Foundation and Practice. NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Kincheloe, J. L. (1993). Toward a critical politics of teacher thinking. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
    Levstik, L. S. & Barton, K. C. (19 ). Doing History. Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Linskie, R. (1977). The learning process: Theory and practice. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.
    Paul, R.(1990). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Rohnert Park, CA: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique.
    Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S., and Krapp, A. (Eds.).
    (1992). The role of interest in learning and development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Ross, E. Wayne (Ed.) (1997). The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
    Selwyn, D. (1999) Arts and Humanities in the Social Studies. NCSS.
    Schon, D. A. (Ed.). (1991). The reflective turn: Case studies in and on educational practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Teachers Curriculum Institute. (1999). History Alive. Addison-Wesley.